- Argon is used because of its inert properties for protection against the oxidizing effect of air. Argon is widely used as a blanketing or shielding gas in metallurgy and arc welding and cutting. Argon is also used to fill incandescent and fluorescent lamps and windows.
Argon is a colorless, odorless, tasteless and nontoxic gas. Argon, along with helium, neon, krypton, xenon and radon is also known as a "rare" gas. Argon forms no known chemical compounds. The gas is 1.38 times heavier than air and is slightly soluble in water. Argon is present in the atmosphere at a concentration of 0.93%. Argon is recovered from air in an Air Separation Unit (ASU) where it is drawn off as a cryogenic liquid at about -303°F. Argon can then be distributed as a cryogenic liquid or as a gas in cylinders.
Related Industries: Fabrication, Steel, Electronics
- Carbon Dioxide
- Carbon dioxide has many applications based on its varied properties. It is widely used in food processing for freezing, cooling, preservation or pH control. It is also used to blanket chemicals, control pH in water treatment, shield metal welding, stimulate biological growth, improve oil and gas production and as a fire-extinguishing agent.
Carbon dioxide is a slightly toxic, odorless, colorless gas with a slightly pungent, acidic taste. It will not burn or support combustion. It is 1.52 times heavier than air and is very soluble in water, forming carbonic acid. Solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) will sublime at atmospheric pressure and -109°F to gaseous carbon dioxide.
Carbon dioxide is formed naturally through fermentation. It is also produced as a by-product of many industrial processes such as ammonia, hydrogen, ethylene oxide, natural gas production and combustion processes.
- Helium's applications utilize its cold, inert or buoyant properties. As a cooling agent, helium is used in basic scientific research, medical imaging (NMR) and various analytical or production processes. Helium is also used in welding and cutting applications and in lasers. Leak detection, deep sea diving and balloons also rely on helium's special properties.
Helium is another member of the group known as "rare" gases and has no color, odor or taste. Helium is the second lightest element, one-seventh as heavy as air. It is chemically inert, has low solubility in water and can not be made to burn or explode. Helium is the coldest known liquid at -452°F.
Helium is difficult to source. Most helium gas is extracted from natural gas sources containing from 1% to 7% by volume. These type of natural gas deposits are not common and mainly exist in certain areas of the United States, Canada, Australia, Qatar, Poland and Russia.
Related Industries: Metal Fabrication, Electronics, Medical, Research
- Hydrogen is used in vast quantities as a raw material for production of ammonia, methanol, hydrogen peroxide, polymers and solvents. It is also used to hydrogenate many animal or vegetable oils and in the production of vitamins and other pharmaceutical products. Hydrogen is also used in metal treating, glass, welding and other metallurgical applications as an inert or reducing atmosphere. Hydrogen is also used as a transportation fuel directly, or in petroleum refining processes to improve product quality.
Hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, nontoxic but flammable gas at atmospheric temperatures and pressures. The gas burns in air with a pale blue, almost invisible flame. Hydrogen is the lightest of all gases, approximately one-fifteenth as heavy as air. Hydrogen is liquid at -423°F.
Hydrogen is manufactured industrially by either electrolysis of water, steam reformation of hydrocarbons or partial oxidation of coal or hydrocarbons.
Related Industries: Hydrogen Energy, Food, Chemicals, Petrochemical & Refining, Electronics, Pharmaceutical, Glass, Metallurgy
- Nitrogen has many commercial and technical applications based on its physical and chemical properties. Liquid nitrogen's cooling properties are used to freeze food, blood and other materials; modify metal properties; control reaction temperatures; cool concrete and simulate extremely cold operating conditions. Nitrogen gas is used to blanket, purge or stir many chemicals or molten metals. The gas can also be used to pressurize devices or pneumatically convey materials, while keeping out contaminates like oxygen or water
Nitrogen is colorless, odorless and tasteless. It is nonflammable, will not support combustion and is not life-supporting. The gas is slightly lighter than air and is only slightly soluble in water. When liquid nitrogen is vaporized and then heated it consumes a large amount of heat, making it an ideal coolant.
Nitrogen is present in the atmosphere at a concentration of 78.1%. Nitrogen is recovered from air in an Air Separation Unit (ASU) where it is drawn off as a cryogenic liquid at about -321°F. Nitrogen can then be distributed as a cryogenic liquid or as a gas in cylinders. Nitrogen can also be generated at the use point, using cryogenic, adsorption or membrane technologies.
Related Industries: Food, Chemicals, Construction,Electronics, Rubber & Plastics, Petrochemical & Refining, Pharmaceutical, Glass
- Oxygen’s many uses are based on its combustion-sustaining, oxidizing and life-supporting attributes. Whether used directly or to enrich combustion air, oxygen is widely used with fuel gases in furnaces, smelters, kilns, welding and metal cutting. Oxygen is used in chemical production as a raw material and in pulp manufacturing as a bleaching agent. Most importantly, oxygen is used for medical reasons to save and protect life.
Oxygen is a colorless, odorless and tasteless gas that supports life and combustion. All elements, except rare gases, react with oxygen, over a wide range of temperatures, to form oxides. Oxygen is 1.1 times heavier than air and is slightly soluble in water.
Oxygen is present in the atmosphere at a concentration of 21.0%. Oxygen is recovered from air in an Air Separation Unit (ASU) where it is drawn off as a cryogenic liquid at about -298°F. Oxygen can then be distributed as a cryogenic liquid or as a gas in cylinders. Oxygen can also be generated onsite, using cryogenic or adsorption technologies.
Related Industries: Medical/LifeGas, Chemicals, Petrochemical & Refining, Pulp & Paper, Metal Fabrication, Glass, Water Treatment, Steel, Metallurgy